Hello Everyone- Another week, another article to discuss with you!
Here is a great review on where we are presently with regards to mass producing insects (i.e., food and feed). What I like about this article (by my colleague and friend Christian Nansen, his student [Trevor] and others) is that it encourages individuals to, 1) not have tunnel vision with regards to the insects targeted for the food and feed sector, and 2) consider traditional routes for enhancing mass-production of the insect models currently implemented by the industry.
Fowles, T.M. & Nansen, C. Agron. Sustain. Dev. (2019) 39: 31. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13593-019-0577
I believe both of these points are worthy of greater discussion (especially point 2), especially considering scientists/industry are quick to apply genetic techniques (see question of the week below) to change the phenotype of an animal to secure the desired features.
As far as diversifying the pool of species currently used for the purposes of producing protein, I completely agree with the authors in terms of encouraging such efforts. Currently, the number of species truly mass produced for use in western culture is extremely limited. When I think about it, cricket, mealworm, and BSF appear to be the primary ones used.
But, as you all know, the diversity of arthropods existing currently on our planet is staggeringly high, and we probably only have a small portion of it identified. I suspect many of those waiting to be described offer great potential for such desired uses (i.e., waste conversion to protein). Not to go on a tangent, but I think this point supports initiatives by taxonomists to describe species around the world. If you ever needed cause to support a natural history museum- well, I think this reason alone would be a good start. Individuals in these museums are charged with cataloging diversity of a number of life forms including insects.
Furthermore, with regards to the species we do currently use, in many cases we do not understand their diversity at the sub-species or population level. Exploring such diversity could lead to the discovery of select populations that are far more efficient at converting waste to protein or handling diverse waste streams. If one were to think about it, following the path used used for animal husbandry with simple breeding programs charged with selecting for these traits. However, selection for a trait of interest could also result in the selection of negative traits as well.
QUESTION OF THE WEEK: What are your thoughts on using CRISPR-Cas9 technology to produce a "strain" of insect that results in the production of materials (e.g., higher protein, specific vitamins, development at specific temperatures, or to remove the need of sunlight to get BSF to mate) desired?
Insects as Food & Feed In the News....
Save the Lemurs- nice story about eating insects in Madagascar. The article has some amazing photographs and supports one of my previous points about diversifying the insects as food and feed industry.
Know the Other Side- you might find this article interesting as it is a counter story on the use of insects as food and feed. Amazing how things become political!
Maintaining a BSF colony that is proficient in digesting organic waste that can vary in terms of nutritional makeup as well as delivery rate (i.e., hard to predict in some instances when you will receive waste and at what amount) can be a challenge (discussion on selecting strains of BSF for optimal waste conversion and protein production will be discussed in next post).
As far as colony maintenance, there are a host of factors that impact output (i.e., eggs/day). Having a strong adult population is obvious; however, maintaining the adult population can be a challenge. One way to maximize adult numbers in your colony is to stagger your adult production. Typically, BSF producers are at the mercy of the weather and their colony (when working in a greenhouse or other outdoor facilities). However, maintaining indoor colonies (climate control) is also challenging as adult emergence patterns can vary. Basically, you have adults when they are available.
One study provides a method for building up a reserve adult population through delaying adult emergence. As most know, insects are diurnal (i.e., daytime activity), and photo-responsive, which means insects respond to the amount of light they receive each day. Throughout temperate regions of the world, seasonal changes result in varying amounts of daylight. This factor partly regulates the development cycle of many insects (including BSF) as such cues indicate weather conditions could be changing to be more hospitable for their development (i.e., spring) or detrimental (i.e., fall or winter). So, as one would expect as day lengthens, many insects will accelerate/complete development and emerge. And, the opposite happens during the fall and winter- insects develop slower or enter diapause (a form of hibernation).
Holmes, L. A., S. L. VanLaerhoven, J. K. Tomberlin, and C. Brent. 2017. Photophase duration affects immature black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) development. Environmental Entomology 46: 1439-1447.
1. Storing pupae at different light exposure periods impacts adult emergence patterns.
2. Placing prepupae/pupae in a completely dark environment can extend pupation time by almost double the time.
3. Find a balance- too much time in the pupal stage also increases mortality.
Things to Consider:
1. This study is for a population out of Texas, USA. If you are in a more northern climate, your population might be more sensitive to light duration.
2. We do not know the impact on egg production. While, the researchers in this study were able to extend development (potentially allowing the creation of a reserve), we do not know if such an energy investment by the larvae impacts egg production by resulting adults.
Insects as Food & Feed in the News....
Not much in the media this week- so I challenge you all to keep engaging the public. The more people learn about our industry, the faster it grows!
The Economist- Much of the same as far as general information on insect production. But, to be featured in such a high profile journal is a win for the industry as the readership is quite broad.
Washington Post- Another great location for discussion of insects as food and feed. The article focuses on two companies in Texas (EVO being one of them) as a means to discuss the BSF and its potential. Others are interviewed as well- Fluker Farms and EnviroFlight.
Jeffery K. Tomberlin, PhD, Introduced My Kids to 80s Rock this Summer
Apologies for the delay in my post. I just returned to the USA yesterday from Wageningen University where I participated in a summer course on the production of insects as food and feed. I enjoyed the course very much. The group of participants were really engaged, and I am confident they all will be successful with their research and business endeavors. I especially enjoyed our visit to Dr. Leen Van Campenhout, Project Director for Lab4Food at KU Leuven. A tremendous amount of research taking place in her lab through a group of excellent graduate students and postdocs.
On my flight back to the states, I had a chance (9 hours of thinking time) to decide what I wanted to highlight in this week's blog post. And, I selected a paper that discusses adulterants in BSF food and their impact on BSF production. In this case, it is antibiotics- specifically, sulfonamides (antibiotic).
Gao, Q., Deng, W., Gao, Z., Li, M., Liu, W., Wang, X., Zhu, F., 2019. Effect of sulfonamide pollution on the growth of manure management candidate Hermetia illucens. PLOS ONE 14, e0216086.
Major Findings of Paper:
1. BSF can degrade the presence of these compounds in a feed substrate. This news supports previous findings with other antibiotics. One thing to note is the mechanism of this process has not been completely sorted out. Some speculate it is the metabolism of the antibiotic by BSF, while other suggest it is the microbiome of the BSF that is responsible for the degradation process.
One thing to note with the study and something I encourage researchers to consider if they want to conduct similar studies is the compound was placed in solution and then mixed in with the feed. I would like to know how BSF respond to the by-products of metabolism of the antibiotics present in a substrate as that would be more "real-world." The point being, mixing antibiotics in with a feed is not really what takes place. However, the results from this study are not lessened in terms of value as they do provide some clue as to how BSF respond to such materials.
2. Concentration of the antibiotic in the feed is important. There is a threshold at which the compound impacts BSF development and production. However, while low concentrations did not impact BSF production- how they impact adults still needs to be examined (see next point).
3 While low levels of the antibiotic did mot impact BSF develop or resulting adult production, it is not known if these sublethal concentrations impact the ability of resulting adults to mate and reproduce- something that needs to be investigated.
4. Residuals of some antibiotics can be found in resulting BSF. This is a really important aspect for everyone to think consider. Basically, contaminants, such as antibiotics can be present in BSF produced. Such contaminants could result in your BSF product being of zero value as they could not be sold in many global markets.
Insects as Food & Feed in the News...
Insects as Food Industry Valued at $8 billion by 2030- Yes, you read this number correctly- $8 billon. This is the projected value for the insects as food sector.
Insect Meat- Potential and Reality- this article discusses work taking place at Tufts University. They published an article in Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems. You might check it out as it is a nice review of the topic.
Insects as Food- Another overview of the topics of insects as food and feed. I can't say anything new- but it is always good to have the message continuously put other there for others to read.
EVO Conversion Systems Received Award- Yes, a little self promotion. But, I am so proud of our team and the hard work invested to make our company a success. The Launch Award, which is presented by the Brazos Valley Economic Development Corporation, recognizes one company that has become established and demonstrated financial success. Here is what they state about the award:
"In determining the annual Launch Award winner, the BVEDC recognizes a company’s scale of operations since startup toward second-stage growth. The company must have demonstrated distinguished industry achievement of technology products and service that validates its potential. The company must have improved or transformed the region’s marketplace in target industry sectors, including advanced manufacturing, agricultural sciences, biotech, engineering, R&D and professional services."
Jeffery K. Tomberlin, PhD, Happy to have made new friends through the Wageningen Summer Course!
This conference, Insects Feed the World (IFW) has been held twice previously- the Netherlands & China.
The 2020 IFW is now officially schedule for Quebec City, Canada- mark your calendars!!! This conference is an excellent opportunity to engage the global community on insects as food and feed.
Insects to Feed the World 2020
I encourage you all to reserve the dates and plan on attending!
Jeffery K. Tomberlin, PhD, Excited about seeing everyone in 2020!!
I have been developing some slide sets for a workshop I am participating in at Wageningen University in the Netherlands next week, and one of the main topics is BSF digestion of feedstuff. And, while I typically discuss the use of pre-consumer food waste from homes, stores, restaurants and so on as a feedstock for BSF, I have not talked about the use agricultural food waste.
Thing about it- fruits, vegetables, and grains are harvested from the field but large amounts of by-product remains- such as spoiled material as well as the non-consumable parts (e.g., tomato plants, corn stalks, etc). In many cases these materials are tilled into the ground. Check out this article from a few years ago as perspective.
But, why are these materials not harvested and recycled with BSF? I think one of the primary reasons is the lack of nutritional value of these materials and the high cellulose content. So, I thought I would include this topic as part of my slide set to be presented during the workshop. Based on my quick review of the literature, there really isn't much known about the ability of the BSF to digest cellulose. But, I did come across this recent publication:
Gao, Z., Wang, W., Lu, X., Zhu, F., Liu, W., Wang, X., Lei, C., 2019. Bioconversion performance and life table of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) on fermented maize straw. Journal of Cleaner Production 230, 974-980.
Take a look if you have time; there are two major takeaways from the paper I would like you to pay particular attention to:
1. BSF can digest plant material high in cellulose- although it takes longer and production isn't as great as with traditional feedstock. But even more importantly-
2. The task was completed by adding a fermentation step. I believe it is commonly known that fermentation of materials to be fed to BSF, 1) enhances the process, 2) reduces odors, and 3) allows for the feedstock to be stored long periods of time prior to use.
Insects as Food & Feed in the News
Canadian Government Seeking Input- definitely check out this story. This is an opportunity to provide input on the use of insects as a food ingredient. I did not notice a direct link to where you can submit your input. So you might have to do a little digging.
Protix Opens New Facility- This is definitely something to be read. In fact, check out the video posted to Youtube. I am truly impressed at the size of the facility and its potential.
From Poo to Food in Kenya- I always appreciate the diversification of BSF (as you know). And, I especially liked this story as it demonstrates the utility of BSF to protect the environment. Kudos to my colleagues in Kenya!
Vegan Trend Boosts Interest in Insect Protein- This is an interesting story about insects as a protein source being supported by vegans... but is it vegan???
Jeffery K. Tomberlin, PhD, looking forward to seeing friends & colleagues in the Netherlands
As with each year, I am able to spend time with my family on holiday. And, we often go to the beach. We have a great time and the kids, at their ages (10 & 13) are less dependent on "Dad" to make it through the day. But, we do have a fun time.
Of course, with greater independence, "Dad" finds himself unoccupied- which means he has time to read a bit of BSF literature, reply to email, and when the time is right- read something fun.
For this trip I am reading "Thomas Jefferson- The Art of Power" by John Meacham. For those that do not know me personally, I truly enjoy reading world history, and I have a special interested in USA history prior to 1861.
But, like I said, I always have time to read BSF literature, which leads me to today's topic- adult matting.
We all know the "heartbeat" of any BSF production facility is the adult colony. If you do not have adults that mate and lay eggs in a predictable pattern, projecting BSF production/waste conversion is extremely challenging.
What is most interesting is that we recognize this massive limitation, but very little adult biology research is being conducted. I would say there are probably less than a dozen papers on this topic. In fact, I am only aware of one study that actually investigated some aspect of adult biology under somewhat natural conditions.
Tomberlin, J. K., and D. C. Sheppard. 2001. Lekking behavior of the black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae). Fla Entomol 84: 729-730.
Here is a freshly printed paper on adult BSF mating behavior and egg production in a colony.
Hoc, B., G. Noël, J. Carpentier, F. Francis, and R. Caparros Megido. 2019.Optimization of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens)artificial reproduction. PLOS ONE 14: e0216160.
The major findings from this article:
1. Increased male numbers accelerated the rate of egg deposition- meaning, females deposited eggs quicker.
2. More males equates to greater hatch rate.
I cannot emphasize this point enough- we need more research on this topic. So, for any researchers out there- send me an email if you are interested in collaborating on such an important topic.
Insects as Food & Feed in the News...
Protix Opens New Facility- A great accomplishment for Protix. They like a few others are making great progress with industrialization of the BSF.
Massive Funding for Research on Insects as Feed- great news for colleagues out of the Netherlands! Keep up the great work and best of luck with your research.
Enterra Mass Production- A nice story on Enterra's endeavors in Canada.
Insect-Based Ice Cream? Why not! - It is quite impressive to see what can be done with insects as far as food. It is no longer simply grow... dry... eat whole.
Jeffery K. Tomberlin, PhD, History Geek
Studies Continue to Demonstrate Value of Black Soldier Fly as Feed for Fish, Chickens, and..... Dogs?
I am on holiday for the next few days with my family (at the beach getting some sun). But, as my family knows, I have select activities that keep my mind engaged (such as this blog), which is a good thing. Put me in a situation where I do not have anything constructive to do, and I am bound to get into trouble or at minimum aggregate them with requests to "bond" over some outlandish family activity.
So, think of it this way, you reading my blog posts is appreciated by my family as well- not just me. This is a situation where everyone wins. I have fun discussing science with my friends around the world and my family gains a few minutes of peace. Now, moving on to today's discussion...
So, I was reviewing some recent publications on the BSF and took notice of the diversity of products, or I should say applications, being developed with the BSF as an ingredient. And, if I haven't preached enough previously on this topic, well I am going to try and partially fulfill this assessment now.
The insects as food and feed industry (more specifically the feed industry) needs to keep pushing forward on product diversification. Right now, we are seeing the whole insect as the product, but I imagine that eventually BSF will be broken down and sub-components of the BSF will be used as ingredients or sold as simplified products themself.
The analogy I use is with livestock. Historically, the whole animal was sold as the product. But, over time, the animal industry has diversified, and these animals are now broken into 100s of different products, which has increased the industry value as well as demand. Think of it this way, we do not go to the store and buy the whole chicken (e.g., feathers, feet, head, internal organs, etc) but typically only a part of it. We need to do the same with BSF; we need to figure out how to deconstruct the insect. I believe doing so will stabilize the market by diversifying the industry. At the same time, the value of BSF will increase. The sum of the parts is truly greater than the value of the whole as a single unit.
Three articles for you to check out are:
Wang, G., K. Peng, J. Hu, C. Yi, X. Chen, H. Wu, and Y. Huang. 2019. Evaluation of defatted black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) larvae meal as an alternative protein ingredient for juvenile Japanese seabass (Lateolabrax japonicus) diets. Aquaculture 507: 144-154.
Main Point- I believe this is the first paper to look at the use of BSF with Japanese seabass. They determined a 64% replacement of traditional diet with BSF could be achieved without any negative impacts on fish development.
Mwaniki, Z. 2019. Complete replacement of soybean meal with defatted black soldier fly larva meal (BSFLM) in laying hen feeding programs: impact on egg production and quality. MS. Thesis.
Main Point- First and foremost, this is a student's research for their MS. I am always excited to see more individuals recruited to the area of insects as food and feed- especially with BSF. The use of BSF as a diet for poultry once again looks very promising. However, it should be noted that conversion rates were not the greatest. But, I am not sure if the calculations are correct. Maybe someone else can take a look and verify these numbers. Also, the author indicated the liver and pancreas were a bit enlarged- is this an issue? If so, how can it be corrected through diet formulation?
Lei X.J., Kim T.H., Park J.H., Kim I.H. (2019). Evaluation of supplementation of defatted black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal in beagle dogs, Annals of Animal Science, DOI: 10.2478/aoas-2019-0021
Main Point-This paper was a challenge for me to read simply because the physiological descriptions presented are a bit above my understanding. What I did gather from the article was the inclusion of BSF did not impact the animal. But, do not take my word for it- check it out for yourself and let me know if I missed anything.
Insects as Food & Feed in the News....
South China Morning Post- one of the better articles I have read online that discusses the insects as food and feed sector.
The Poultry Site- This is a review of IPIFF asking for greater quality assurance measures in insects as food and feed sector. I am reposting this topic as it demonstrates the poultry industry is taking notice of what we all are attempting to accomplish.
Insects as Meat- I am a bit surprised that there are individuals referring to insects as "meat". I caution the adoption of this practice as it will potentially create friction between the insects as food and feed industry with livestock, poultry, and aquaculture. The last thing an industry in its infancy needs is to have such large commodity groups seeing it as a competitor rather than a partner.
Jeffery K. Tomberlin, PhD, Not a Fan of Using Term, "Meat" to Describe Insects
I know, a topic probably discussed many times here as well as other discussion boards, publications, news outlets, etc. But, I wanted to bring it up.... just... one... more.... time. Since BSF are so adept at digesting animal waste, why not use it to do so? Now, don't get me wrong. I realize there are matters that need to be considered, such as pathogens, heavy metals, and in-system recycling. And, I strongly recommend a comprehensive plan be developed to evaluate the process and ensure its safety. But, as you will see in the following article (by Chelsea Miranda- yes, I am very proud of her. Chelsea did an outstanding job with her PhD in my lab at TAMU), BSF are very effective at reducing a host of manure types. This paper is just the first of six more to be published (exciting, right?!). But I challenge you to consider this option and advocate for more research in this arena. If we can create a safe system for recycling such wastes, why not use it?
Miranda, C. D., J. A. Cammack, and J. K. Tomberlin. 2019. Life-history traits of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), reared on three manure types. Animals 9: 281.
One thing to note with this study is the scale. The size of the size is definitely bench-top. So, don't expect these results to translate to industrial scale.
Insects as Food & Feed in the News.....
Mealworms in your food- a nice story on our friend, Lars Heckmann at the Danish Technology Institute.
IPIFF hard at work developing standards in EU- A great overview of some challenges faced by the insects as food sector. It also discusses current debate on food hygiene occurring in EU.
Edible insect market currently valued at $25 billion USD- Something I have been advocating for the past couple of years- diversify, diversify, diversify the products produced with insects as an ingredient.
Colleagues at UC, Davis create startup on insects- Nice job, Lydia and company. I wish you the best of luck!
Jeffery K. Tomberlin, PhD, Proud Academic Papa
While, I would much rather pluck each article published in this issue of the journal, Animals, and use them as individual blog posts (allows me to have about a dozen or more posts just from this one issue), I think (this time), it is better to simply provide you with the link to a great collection of articles on insects as feed.
Laura Gasco did a great job assembling a team of researchers to present their latest results on insects as a feed source for a variety of livestock, poultry, and aquaculture. I encourage you to check this link periodically as there are new articles being added to the special addition regularly (hint- my lab has one that will be posted soon).
Special Issue "Insects: Alternative Protein Source for Animal Feed"
Here are just a few topics covered in the special issue:
Insects in the News.....A Single Special Post
Youth Invests Time Developing a Home for Ducks: I met this young lady, Azja, at a 4H poultry show this past week. If you have a chance, visit her website. She is very impressive as she has developed a home for ducks not wanted by their owners anymore. She has also initiated a service where she takes her partner, Cuddle Quack, and his friends to visit individuals (i.e., assisted living homes) that enjoy the company of animals. Cuddle Quack even has a youtube channel, twitter feed (if the link does not work- you can find her on twitter), and facebook page. It looks like Cuddle Quack is also a great friend to Azja as well. Again- very impressive! I truly enjoy seeing individuals as young as Azja involved with her community. Please find her on twitter or facebook and encourage her. I know she would appreciate it.
Jeffery K Tomberlin, PhD, Impressed by Person Committed to Community Service
"A candle burning at both ends burns brightest, but it cannot last the night." - Joseph T. Shockley
Marianne Clopton Shockley, Ph. D., of Apalachee, Georgia passed from this earthly dimension on Sunday, March 12, 2019. She was the third child and second daughter of Drs. John & Sandra Shockley, also residents of Apalachee. Marianne and her elder sister, Suzanne (Mrs. Eric) Hendricks of Soperton, Georgia shared the same birthday of August 14th, though Marianne was five years younger. Their paternal uncle Colonel Peter S. Shockley, Ret., formerly of Alexandria, Virginia, also shared the ubiquitous August 14th birthday.
Before joining the faculty of the Entomology Department at the University of Georgia, Dr. Shockley received her Doctorate of Philosophy from UGA in 2009. While in Athens, she was responsible for a great number of the Entomology Department's Community Outreach projects, which included speaking to primary, elementary and middle school students throughout the area about the importance of pollinators such as bees and fruit flies, the viability of insects as a food source, and the value of insects and arachnids in supporting human life on our planet. For more than a decade, Dr. Shockley planned, organized, and taught UGA's summer educational program affectionately known as Bug Camp. Depending upon the local interest, three to six camps could be offered each summer, with Dr. Shockley at the helm of each and every classroom lesson and field trip. Utilizing the University's satellite campuses in tropical locales, such as Ecuador, Dr. Shockley also guided remote expeditions for graduate students, as well as undergrads. Butterflies were always a treasured find, although exotic reptiles were glimpsed on multiple occasions.
Dr. Shockley's favorite professional activity, though, was introducing folks to recipes which included insects such as crickets and mealworms. Many a young camper or Entomology student will long remember their first taste of rice cereal treats prepared with freeze-dried crickets, or ChexMix including roasted mealworms. Dr. Shockley published in numerous academic journals and also contributed to several books authored on the subject of edible insects. A speaking engagement in South Africa proved to be incredibly enlightening for the entomologist. There are scores of local populations on the continent that subsist primarily on insects and ground insect meal. She returned stateside more excited than ever about the role her beloved bugs could play in eliminating hunger and food shortages, yet simultaneously increasing protein levels for individuals with metabolic issues.
Yet Marianne's favorite personal activity was spending time with her two children, Paul, age 17 and Nora, age 15, both high school students in Madison, Georgia. With the influence and guidance of their grandfather, affectionately known as Papa John, the young pair spent hours on horseback, gradually increasing their skill levels, so as to be able to compete in Georgia High School Rodeo Association events, such as heading & heeling for Paul and barrel racing for Nora. Marianne learned how to drive a 1 ton pick-up truck, pulling a 26 foot horse trailer, on a recent rodeo trip to Alabama. There was no activity too small nor too large for Marianne to organize around her two beloved babies. At Apalachee United Methodist Church, where she was a lifelong member, the trio were often found in Sunday School class, along with friends of the children. Years ago, Marianne's mother, lovingly known as Nee-Nee, began the tradition of preparing a home-cooked Sunday noon meal for the burgeoning class of Bible scholars.
Paul and Nora were also vital team members of their mother's Bug Camps. Before they reached double-digit ages, either child could identify the species of ant crawling around their cousin's swimming pool or spider sunning itself on the window sills of their grandparents legendary back porch. They also assisted their mother, in later years, on local field trips and exhibitions. It was not unusual for the little family to take a weekend beach trip to Folly Beach or Sullivan's Island, South Carolina.
In addition to her birthday sister Suzanne, Marianne leaves behind one brother, S. Reid Shockley of Apalachee, and younger sister, Ayla (Mrs. Richard) Crippen of Atlanta. Her nieces and nephews - Miranda, Hailey and JT Hendricks, Jack and Dash Crippen, will forever remember their Aunt Marianne as being jovial and full of light and laughter. A multitude of aunts, uncles and cousins will also remember Marianne's bug obsession and joie de vivre. The faculty, staff, former and current students of entomology classes will never forget Dr. Shockley adventurous spirit and willingness to help others. Her innumerable friends from high school, college and the professional community will treasure receiving her ceaseless smiles.
Dr. Marianne Shockley's memorial service will be held on Friday, May 17th, 2019 at Apalachee United Methodist Church, beginning at 2pm. The family wishes to extend their deepest and sincerest gratitude to everyone who has stopped by the family home of Hylea, many bearing gifts of food and/or paper products. All have expressed a desire to assist Marianne's children as they grieve the untimely loss of their loving and beautiful mother. A GoFundMe page has been set up for those wishing to donate to the "Celebration of Life of Marianne Shockley".
Donations can also be made to the Apalachee United Methodist Church, in honor and memory of Marianne. These can be mailed to Hazel Nicholson, 1565 Apalachee Road, Madison, Georgia 30650.
"She worked hard. She played harder. She loved hardest of all." - anonymous
Jeffery K. Tomberlin, PhD, Missing my friend and colleague
Individuals with over 25 years research experience with the black soldier fly. We are passionate about the science behind the black soldier fly and its ability to convert waste to protein.
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